Explain the differences of Structural and Geometric isomerization in a coordination complexes or complex ions. Define Ionization, Linkage, and Coordination Isomerization (structural isomer classes) Define cis/tran and mer/fac isomerization (geometric isomer classes)
The existence of coordination compounds with the same formula but different arrangements of the ligands was crucial in the development of coordination jonathanlewisforcongress.comistry. Two or more compounds with the same formula but different arrangements of the atoms are called isomers. Because isomers usually have different physical and jonathanlewisforcongress.comical properties, it is important to know which isomer we are dealing with if more than one isomer is possible. As we will see, coordination compounds exhibit the same types of isomers as organic compounds, as well as several kinds of isomers that are unique. Isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas and do not necessarily share similar properties. There are many different classes of isomers, like stereoisomers, enantiomers, and geometrical isomers. There are two main forms of isomerism: structural isomerism and stereoisomerism (spatial isomerism).
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Class I: Structural Isomers
Isomers that contain the same number of atoms of each kind but differ in which atoms are bonded to one another are called structural isomers, which differ in structure or bond type. For inorganic complexes, there are three types of structural isomers: ionization, coordination and linkage. Structural isomers, as their name implies, differ in their structure or bonding, which are separate from stereoisomers that differ in the spatial arrangement of the ligands are attached, but still have the bonding properties. The different jonathanlewisforcongress.comical formulas in structural isomers are caused either by a difference in what ligands are bonded to the central atoms or how the individual ligands are bonded to the central atoms. When determining a structural isomer, you look at (1) the ligands that are bonded to the central metal and (2) which atom of the ligands attach to the central metal.
Ionization isomers occur when a ligand that is bound to the metal center exchanges places with an anion or neutral molecule that was originally outside the coordination complex. The geometry of the central metal ion and the identity of other ligands are identical. For example, an octahedral isomer will have five ligands that are identical, but the sixth will differ. The non-matching ligand in one compound will be outside of the coordination sphere of the other compound. Because the anion or molecule outside the coordination sphere is different, the jonathanlewisforcongress.comical properties of these isomers is different. A hydrate isomer is a specific kind of ionization isomer where a water molecule is one of the molecules that exchanges places.