Describe person male and female reproductive anatomiesDescribe spermatogenesis and oogenesis and also discuss their differences and also similaritiesDescribe the duty of hormone in human reproductionDescribe the functions of male and also female reproductive hormones

As in all animals, the adaptations because that reproduction in humans are complex. Castle involve specialized and various anatomies in the 2 sexes, a hormone regulation system, and committed behaviors regulation by the brain and endocrine system.

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Human Reproductive Anatomy

The reproductive organization of male and female human beings develop likewise in utero until about the seventh week the gestation once a low level the the hormone testosterone is exit from the gonads the the developing male. Testosterone causes the primitive gonads to differentiate into male sexual organs. As soon as testosterone is absent, the primitive gonads construct into ovaries. Organization that develop a cock in males create a clitoris in females. The organization that will come to be the scrotum in a male becomes the labia in a female. Hence the male and also female anatomies arise from a divergence in the development of what to be once typical embryonic structures.

Male Reproductive Anatomy

Sperm room immobile at human body temperature; therefore, the testes are exterior to the body so that a exactly temperature is preserved for motility. In land mammals, including humans, the pair the testes must be suspended outside the body so the environment of the sperm is about 2 °C reduced than body temperature to create viable sperm. If the testes execute not descend through the abdominal cavity during fetal development, the separation, personal, instance has lessened fertility.

The scrotum houses the testicles or testes (singular: testis), and also provides passage for blood vessels, nerves, and muscles related to testicular function. The testes are a pair of masculine gonads that develop sperm and reproductive hormones. Every testis is around 2.5 by 3.8 cm (1.5 by 1 inch) in size and divided into wedge-shaped lobes by septa. Coiled in each wedge space seminiferous tubules that produce sperm.

The penis drains urine from the urinary bladder and also is a copulatory organ throughout intercourse (Figure 13.12; Table 13.1). The penis has three pipe of erectile tissue that become engorged through blood, do the dick erect, in ready for intercourse. The body organ is inserted into the vagina culminating with one ejaculation. Throughout orgasm, the accessory organs and also glands linked to the testes contract and also empty the semen (containing sperm) into the urethra and also the fluid is expelled native the body by muscular contractions leading to ejaculation. After ~ intercourse, the blood drains from the erectile tissue and the penis becomes flaccid.

Semen is a mixture the sperm (about 5 percent that the total) and fluids from accessory glands that add most the the semen’s volume. Sperm are haploid cells, consists of a flagellum because that motility, a neck that includes the cell’s energy-producing mitochondria, and also a head that includes the genetic material (Figure 13.11). An acrosome (acrosomal vesicle) is found at the height of the head the the sperm. This structure consists of enzymes that have the right to digest the safety coverings the surround the egg and enable the sperm come fuse v the egg. An ejaculate will contain from two to 5 milliliters of fluid and from 50–120 million sperm every milliliter.

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Figure 13.11 As checked out in this scanning electron micrograph, person sperm has actually a flagellum, neck, and head. (credit: scale-bar data native Matt Russell)

Sperm form in the wall surfaces of seminiferous tubules that room coiled inside the testes (Figure 13.12; Table 13.1). The walls of the seminiferous tubules are consisted of of the occurring sperm cells, through the least emerged sperm in ~ the periphery of the tubule and the fully developed sperm beside the lumen. The sperm cell are connected with Sertoli cells that nourish and also promote the advancement of the sperm. Various other cells present between the walls of the tubules room the interstitial cell of Leydig, which develop testosterone as soon as the male reaches adolescence.

When the sperm have arisen flagella they leaving the seminiferous tubules and also enter the epididymis (Figure 13.12; Table 13.1). This framework lies along the top and posterior that the testes and is the website of sperm maturation. The sperm leave the epididymis and enter the vas deferens, which carries the sperm behind the bladder, and forms the ejaculatory duct through the duct native the seminal vesicles. Throughout a vasectomy, a ar of the vas deferens is removed, preventing sperm (but not the secretions of the accessory glands) from being passed out of the body throughout ejaculation and also preventing fertilization.

The mass of the semen originates from the accessory glands linked with the masculine reproductive system. These are the seminal vesicles, the prostate gland, and also the bulbourethral gland (Figure 13.12; Table 13.1). The secretions native the accessory glands administer important compounds because that the sperm consisting of nutrients, electrolytes, and also pH buffering. There are additionally coagulation components that affect sperm delivery and also motility.


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Figure 13.12 The reproductive frameworks of the human being male room shown.

Which the the adhering to statements about the masculine reproductive system is false?

A. The vas deferens carries sperm indigenous the testes come the seminal vesicles.

B. The ejaculatory duct joins the urethra.

C. Both the prostate and also the bulbourethral glands produce components of the semen.

D. The prostate gland is situated in the testes.


Table 13.1 male Reproductive AnatomyOrganLocationFunction
ScrotumExternalSupports testes and also regulates their temperature
PenisExternalDelivers urine, copulating organ
TestesInternalProduce sperm and male hormones
Seminal VesiclesInternalContribute to semen production
Prostate GlandInternalContributes to semen production
Bulbourethtral GlandsInternalNeutralize pee in urethra

Female Reproductive Anatomy

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Figure 13.13 A variety of female reproductive structures space exterior come the body. These include the breasts and the vulva, which consists of the mons pubis, clitoris, labia majora, labia minora, and the vestibular glands (Figure 13.13; Table 13.2).

The breasts consists mammary glands and also fat. Each gland consists of 15 come 25 lobes that have actually ducts the empty at the nipple and that supply the nursing kid with nutrient- and antibody-rich milk to aid advance and safeguard the child.

Internal woman reproductive structures encompass ovaries, oviducts, the uterus, and the vagina (Figure 13.13; Table 13.2). The pair that ovaries is hosted in place in the abdominal muscle cavity by a mechanism of ligaments. The outermost class of the ovary is comprised of follicles, each consisting of one or an ext follicular cells that surround, nourish, and protect a solitary egg. During the expression period, a batch that follicular cell develops and also prepares your eggs for release. At ovulation, one follicle ruptures and one egg is released. Complying with ovulation, the follicular organization that surrounded the ovulated egg remains within the ovary and grows to kind a heavy mass referred to as the corpus luteum. The body luteum secretes added estrogen and the hormone progesterone that helps maintain the uterine lining throughout pregnancy. The ovaries also produce hormones, such together estrogen.

The oviducts, or fallopian tubes, extend from the uterus in the lower abdominal cavity to the ovaries, however they space not in contact with the ovaries. The lateral end of the oviducts flare out into a trumpet-like structure and have a fringe of finger-like projections referred to as fimbrae. As soon as an egg is exit at ovulation, the fimbrae aid the nonmotile egg get in into the tube. The walls of the oviducts have actually a ciliated epithelium over smooth muscle. The cilia beat, and the smooth muscle contracts, moving the egg toward the uterus. Fertilization normally takes location within the oviduct and also the emerging embryo is moved toward the uterus. It normally takes the egg or embryo a week to travel with the oviduct.

Sterilization in ladies is called a tubal ligation; it is analogous to a vasectomy in males in that the oviducts room severed and sealed, staying clear of sperm from getting to the egg.

The uterus is a structure around the dimension of a woman’s fist. The uterus has a thick muscular wall and is lined with an endometrium well-off in blood vessels and mucus glands the develop and thicken during the woman cycle. Thickening the the endometrium prepares the uterus to receive the fertilized egg or zygote, which will certainly then implant chin in the endometrium. The uterus supports the emerging embryo and also fetus throughout gestation. Contractions the the smooth muscle in the uterus assist in forcing the baby with the vagina during labor. If fertilization does not occur, a section of the lining that the uterus sloughs off throughout each term period. The endometrium builds up again in preparation for implantation. Part of the uterus, referred to as the cervix, protrudes into the peak of the vagina.

The vagina is a muscular tube that serves number of purposes. It permits menstrual flow to leaving the body. The is the receptacle for the prick during intercourse and the pathway for the distribution of offspring.

Table 13.2 woman Reproductive AnatomyOrganLocationFunction
ClitorisExternalSensory organ
Mons pubisExternalFatty area overlying pubic bone
Labia majoraExternalCovers labia minora; consists of sweat and sebaceous glands
Labia minoraExternalCovers vestibule
Greater vestibular glandsExternalSecrete mucus; lubricate vagina
BreastExternalProduces and also delivers milk
OvariesInternalProduce and also develop eggs
OviductsInternalTransport egg to uterus; website of fertilization
UterusInternalSupports developing embryo
VaginaInternalCommon pipe for intercourse, birth canal, passing menstrual flow
Gametogenesis (Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis)

Gametogenesis, the manufacturing of sperm and also eggs, entails the process of meiosis. Throughout meiosis, two nuclear departments separate the combine chromosomes in the nucleus and also then separate the chromatids that were made during an earlier stage the the cell life cycle. Meiosis and also its connected cell departments produces haploid cell with fifty percent of each pair the chromosomes normally discovered in diploid cells. The production of sperm is referred to as spermatogenesis and also the manufacturing of egg is dubbed oogenesis.

Spermatogenesis

Spermatogenesis occurs in the wall of the seminiferous tubules, v the most primitive cell at the perimeter of the tube and also the many mature sperm in ~ the lumen of the pipe (Figure 13.14). Automatically under the capsule that the tubule space diploid, regardless of whether cells. These stem cells, each referred to as a spermatogonium (pl. Spermatogonia), go with mitosis to develop one cell that continues to be as a stem cell and also a 2nd cell referred to as a main spermatocyte that will undergo meiosis to develop sperm.

The diploid main spermatocyte goes through meiosis ns to produce two haploid cell called secondary spermatocytes. Each second spermatocyte divides after meiosis II to develop two cells called spermatids. The spermatids at some point reach the lumen the the tubule and grow a flagellum, ending up being sperm cells. Four sperm an outcome from each primary spermatocyte the goes with meiosis.

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Figure 13.14 throughout spermatogenesis, 4 sperm an outcome from each main spermatocyte. The process also maps ~ above the physical framework of the wall of the seminiferous tubule, through the spermatogonia ~ above the external side the the tubule, and the sperm through their developing tails prolonged into the lumen the the tubule.