What is the term for metabolic pathways that release stored energy by breaking dvery own complex molecules?

A) anabolic pathways

B) catabolic pathways

C) fermentation pathways

D) thermodynamic pathways

E) bioenergetic pathways


The molecule that features as the reducing agent (electron donor) in a redox or oxidation-reduction reaction

A) gains electrons and also gains energy.

You are watching: Which of the following occurs in the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell

B) loses electrons and loses power.

C) gains electrons and loses power.

D) loses electrons and also gains energy.

E) neither gains nor loses electrons, but gains or loses energy.


When electrons relocate closer to a more electronegative atom, what happens?

A) Energy is released.

B) Energy is consumed.

C) The more electronegative atom is lessened.

D) The even more electronegative atom is oxidized.

E) A and also C are correct.


Why does the oxidation of organic compounds by molecular oxygen to develop CO2 and also water release complimentary energy?

A) The covalent bonds in organic molecules are higher energy bonds than those in water and carbon dioxide.

B) Electrons are being relocated from atoms that have actually a reduced affinity for electrons (such as C) to atoms with a higher affinity for electrons (such as O).

C) The oxidation of organic compounds deserve to be used to make ATP.

D) The electrons have actually a greater potential energy once associated with water and also CO 2 than they execute in organic compounds.

E) The covalent bond in O2 is unsteady and also easily broken by electrons from organic molecules.


Answer: B


5

Which of the following statements describes the outcomes of this reaction? C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy

A) C6H12O6 is oxidized and O2 is decreased.

B) O2 is oxidized and also H2O is diminished.

C) CO2 is reduced and O2 is oxidized.

D) C6H12O6 is diminished and also CO2 is oxidized.

E) O2 is reduced and also CO2 is oxidized.


Answer: A


6

When a glucose molecule loses a hydrogen atom as the result of an oxidation-reduction reaction, the molecule becomes

A) dehydrogenated.

B) hydrogenated.

C) oxidized.

D) diminished.

E) an oxidizing agent.


Answer: C


7

When a molecule of NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) gains a hydrogen atom (not a hydrogen ion) the molecule becomes

A) hydrogenated.

B) oxidized.

C) decreased.

D) redoxed.

E) a reducing agent.


Answer: C


8

Which of the adhering to statements defines NAD+?

A) NAD+ is diminished to NADH throughout both glycolysis and also the citric acid cycle.

B) NAD+ has more chemical power than NADH.

C) NAD+ is diminished by the action of hydrogenases.

D) NAD+ have the right to donate electrons for usage in oxidative phosphorylation.

E) In the absence of NAD+, glycolysis can still attribute.


Answer: A


9

Wright here does glycolysis takes place?

A) mitochondrial matrix

B) mitochondrial outer membrane

C) mitochondrial inner membrane

D) mitochondrial intermembrane space

E) cytosol


Answer: E


10

The ATP made in the time of glycolysis is produced by

A) substrate-level phosphorylation.

B) electron move.

C) photophosphorylation.

D) chemiosmosis.

E) oxidation of NADH to NAD+.


Answer: A


11

The oxygen consumed in the time of cellular respiration is involved directly in which procedure or event?

A) glycolysis

B) accepting electrons at the end of the electron transfer chain

C) the citric acid cycle

D) the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA

E) the phosphorylation of ADP to create ATP


Answer: B


12

Which procedure in eukaryotic cells will proceed usually whether oxygen (O2) is existing or absent?

A) electron transport

B) glycolysis

C) the citric acid cycle

D) oxidative phosphorylation

E) chemiosmosis


Answer: B


13

An electron loses potential energy when it

A) shifts to a less electronegative atom.

B) shifts to a more electronegative atom.

C) increases its kinetic energy.

D) rises its activity as an oxidizing agent.

E) attaches itself to NAD+.


Answer: B


14

Why are carbohydrates and fats thought about high energy foods?

A) They have a lot of oxygen atoms.

B) They have no nitrogen in their makeup. C) They have the right to have extremely long carbon skelelots. D) They have actually many electrons linked via hydrogen.

E) They are quickly decreased.


Answer: D


15
*

Which step reflects a split of one molecule right into 2 smaller sized molecules?


Answer: B


16
*

In which action is an not natural phosphate added to the reactant?


Answer: C


17
*

In which reaction does an intermediate pathmeans come to be oxidized?


Answer: C


18
*

Which action entails an endergonic reaction?


Answer: A


19
*

Which action consists of a phosphorylation reaction in which ATP is the phosphate source?


Answer: A


20

Substrate-level phosphorylation accounts for around what percentage of the ATP developed during glycolysis?

A) 0%

B) 2%

C) 10%

D) 38%

E) 100%


Answer: E


21

Throughout glycolysis, once glucose is catabolized to pyruvate, most of the energy of glucose is

A) moved to ADP, developing ATP.

B) transferred directly to ATP.

C) retained in the pyruvate.

D) stored in the NADH created.

E) provided to phosphorylate fructose to create fructose-6-phosphate.


Answer: C


22

In enhancement to ATP, what are the finish commodities of glycolysis?

A) CO2 and H2O

B) CO2 and pyruvate

C) NADH and pyruvate

D) CO2 and NADH

E) H2O, FADH2, and also citrate


Answer: C


23

The totally free power for the oxidation of glucose to CO2 and also water is -686 kcal/mole and also the totally free energy for the reduction of NAD+ to NADH is +53 kcal/mole. Why are just 2 molecules of NADH developed throughout glycolysis once it appears that as many type of as a dozen can be formed?

A) Most of the complimentary power obtainable from the oxidation of glucose is used in the manufacturing of ATP in glycolysis.

B) Glycolysis is a very inefficient reactivity, through a lot of the energy of glucose released as warm.

C) Many of the cost-free energy available from the oxidation of glucose continues to be in pyruvate, among the products of glycolysis

D) Tbelow is no CO2 or water produced as products of glycolysis.

E) Glycolysis consists of many kind of enzymatic reactions, each of which extracts some energy from the glucose molecule.


Answer: C


24

Starting with one molecule of glucose, the ʺnetʺ commodities of glycolysis are A) 2 NAD+, 2 H+, 2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, and 2 H2O.

B) 2 NADH, 2 H+, 2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, and also 2 H2O.

C) 2 FADH2, 2 pyruvate, 4 ATP, and also 2 H2O.

D) 6 CO2, 6 H2O, 2 ATP, and also 2 pyruvate.

E) 6 CO2, 6 H2O, 36 ATP, and 2 citrate.


Answer: B


25

In glycolysis, for each molecule of glucose oxidized to pyruvate

A) 2 molecules of ATP are provided and 2 molecules of ATP are created.

B) 2 molecules of ATP are supplied and also 4 molecules of ATP are produced.

C) 4 molecules of ATP are provided and 2 molecules of ATP are created.

D) 2 molecules of ATP are provided and 6 molecules of ATP are created.

E) 6 molecules of ATP are used and also 6 molecules of ATP are developed.


Answer: B


26

A molecule that is phosphorylated

A) has actually been lessened as a result of a redox reactivity including the loss of an not natural phosphate.

B) has actually a reduced chemical reactivity; it is much less most likely to provide energy for cellular job-related.

C) has actually been oxidized as a result of a redox reaction entailing the get of an not natural phosphate.

D) has an raised chemical reactivity; it is primed to perform cellular work.

E) has actually much less power than before its phosphorylation and therefore less energy for cellular work-related.


Answer: D


27

Which sort of metabolic poiboy would certainly the majority of directly interfere with glycolysis?

A) an agent that reacts with oxygen and also depletes its concentration in the cell

B) an agent that binds to pyruvate and also inactivates it

C) an agent that very closely mimics the structure of glucose however is not metabolized

D) an agent that reacts through NADH and also oxidizes it to NADVERTISEMENT +

E) an agent that blocks the passage of electrons along the electron carry chain


Answer: C


28

Why is glycolysis defined as having actually an investment phase and also a payoff phase?

A) It both splits molecules and also assembles molecules.

B) It attaches and also detaches phosphate groups.

C) It provides glucose and generates pyruvate.

D) It shifts molecules from cytosol to mitochondrion.

E) It uses stored ATP and also then forms a net rise in ATP.


Answer: E


29

In the visibility of oxygen, the three-carbon compound pyruvate can be catabolized in the citric acid cycle. First, yet, the pyruvate 1) loses a carbon, which is offered off as a molecule of CO2, 2) is oxidized to develop a two-carbon compound called acetate, and also 3) is bonded to coenzyme A.

These three actions result in the development of

A) acetyl CoA, O2, and ATP.

B) acetyl CoA, FADH2, and CO2.

C) acetyl CoA, FADVERTISEMENT, H2, and CO2.

D) acetyl CoA, NADH, H+, and CO2.

E) acetyl CoA, NAD+, ATP, and also CO2.


Answer: D


30

In the visibility of oxygen, the three-carbon compound pyruvate can be catabolized in the citric acid cycle. First, however, the pyruvate 1) loses a carbon, which is provided off as a molecule of CO2, 2) is oxidized to develop a two-carbon compound referred to as acetate, and also 3) is bonded to coenzyme A.

Why is coenzyme A, a sulfur containing molecule derived from a B vitamin, added?

A) because sulhair is necessary for the molecule to enter the mitochondrion

B) in order to make use of this percent of a B vitamin which would certainly otherwise be a waste product from one more pathway

C) to carry out a relatively unstable molecule whose acetyl percentage deserve to readily bind to oxaloacetate

D) bereason it drives the reactivity that regenerates NAD+

E) in order to remove one molecule of CO2


Answer: C


31

How does pyruvate enter the mitochondrion?

A) energetic transport

B) diffusion

C) promoted diffusion

D) through a channel

E) with a pore


Answer: A


32

Which of the complying with intermediary metabolites enters the citric acid cycle and also is formed, in part, by the removal of a carbon (CO2) from one molecule of pyruvate?

A) lactate

B) glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate

C) oxaloacetate

D) acetyl CoA

E) citrate


Answer: D


33

Throughout cellular respiration, acetyl CoA accumulates in which location?

A) cytosol

B) mitochondrial outer membrane

C) mitochondrial inner membrane

D) mitochondrial intermembrane space

E) mitochondrial matrix


Answer: E


34

How many kind of carbon atoms are fed into the citric acid cycle as a result of the oxidation of one molecule of pyruvate?

A) 2

B) 4

C) 6

D) 8

E) 10


Answer: A


35
*

Starting via one molecule of isocitprice and finishing with fumarate, what is the maximum variety of ATP molecules that might be made through substrate-level phosphorylation?

A) 1

B) 2

C) 11

D) 12

E) 24


Answer: A


36

Carbon skelelots for amino acid biosynthesis are offered by intermediates of the citric acid cycle. Which intermediate would certainly supply the carbon skeleton for synthesis of a five-carbon amino acid?

A) succinate

B) malate

C) citrate

D) α-ketoglutarate

E) isocitrate


Answer: D


37

How many molecules of carbon dioxide (CO2) would certainly be created by five transforms of the citric acid cycle?

A) 2

B) 5

C) 10

D) 12

E) 60


Answer: C


38

How many decreased dinucleotides would be developed through four transforms of the citric acid cycle?

A) 1 FADH2 and 4 NADH

B) 2 FADH2 and 8 NADH

C) 4 FADH2 and also 12 NADH

D) 1 FAD and 4 NAD+

E) 4 FAD+ and 12 NAD+


Answer: C


39

Starting through citrate, which of the adhering to combicountries of assets would certainly outcome from 3 transforms of the citric acid cycle?

A) 1 ATP, 2 CO2, 3 NADH, and 1 FADH2

B) 2 ATP, 2 CO2, 1 NADH, and also 3 FADH2

C) 3 ATP, 3 CO2, 3 NADH, and 3 FADH2

D) 3 ATP, 6 CO2, 9 NADH, and 3 FADH2

E) 38 ATP, 6 CO2, 3 NADH, and also 12 FADH2


Answer: D


40

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is released throughout which of the adhering to stperiods of cellular respiration?

A) glycolysis and also the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA

B) oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and the citric acid cycle

C) the citric acid cycle and also oxidative phosphorylation

D) oxidative phosphorylation and also fermentation

E) fermentation and also glycolysis


Answer: B


41

For each molecule of glucose that is metabolized by glycolysis and also the citric acid cycle, what is the total number of NADH + FADH2 molecules produced?

A) 4

B) 5

C) 6

D) 10

E) 12


Answer: E


42

A young pet has never before had actually much energy. He is brought to a veterinarian for assist and is sent out to the animal hospital for some tests. Tbelow they find his mitochondria have the right to usage only fatty acids and amino acids for respiration, and his cells develop more lactate than normal. Of the following, which is the best explanation of his condition?

A) His mitochondria absence the move protein that moves pyruvate across the external mitochondrial membrane.

B) His cells cannot move NADH from glycolysis right into the mitochondria.

C) His cells contain something that inhibits oxygen use in his mitochondria.

D) His cells absence the enzyme in glycolysis that forms pyruvate.

E) His cells have a defective electron transport chain, so glucose goes to lactate instead of to acetyl CoA.


Answer: A


43

Cellular respiration harvests the a lot of chemical power from which of the following?

A) substrate-level phosphorylation

B) chemiosmotic phosphorylation

C) converting oxygen to ATP

D) transferring electrons from organic molecules to pyruvate

E) generating carbon dioxide and also oxygen in the electron transport chain


Answer: B


44

Throughout aerobic respiration, electrons travel downhill in which sequence? A) food → citric acid cycle → ATP → NAD+

B) food → NADH → electron transport chain → oxygen

C) glucose → pyruvate → ATP → oxygen

D) glucose → ATP → electron transfer chain → NADH

E) food → glycolysis → citric acid cycle → NADH → ATP


Answer: B


45

Where are the proteins of the electron move chain located?

A) cytosol

B) mitochondrial external membrane

C) mitochondrial inner membrane

D) mitochondrial intermembrane space

E) mitochondrial matrix


Answer: C


46

Which of the adhering to describes the sequence of electron carriers in the electron transport chain, founding through the leastern electronegative?

A) ubiquinone (Q), cytochromes (Cyt), FMN, Fe•S

B) cytochromes (Cyt), FMN, ubiquinone, Fe•S

C) Fe•S, FMN, cytochromes (Cyt), ubiquinone

D) FMN, Fe•S, ubiquinone, cytochromes (Cyt)

E) cytochromes (Cyt), Fe•S, ubiquinone, FMN


Answer: D


47

During aerobic respiration, which of the following directly donates electrons to the electron carry chain at the lowest energy level?

A) NAD+

B) NADH

C) ATP

D) ADP + Pi

E) FADH2


Answer: E


48

The main function of oxygen in cellular respiration is to

A) yield energy in the create of ATP as it is passed down the respiratory chain.

B) act as an acceptor for electrons and hydrogen, forming water.

C) combine with carbon, developing CO2.

D) integrate via lactate, forming pyruvate.

E) catalyze the reactions of glycolysis.


Answer: B


49

Inside an energetic mitochondrion, a lot of electrons follow which pathway?

A) glycolysis → NADH → oxidative phosphorylation → ATP → oxygen

B) citric acid cycle → FADH2 → electron deliver chain → ATP

C) electron transfer chain → citric acid cycle → ATP → oxygen

D) pyruvate → citric acid cycle → ATP → NADH → oxygen

E) citric acid cycle → NADH → electron transfer chain → oxygen


Answer: E


50

During oxidative phosphorylation, H2O is created. Wbelow does the oxygen for the synthesis of the water come from?

A) carbon dioxide (CO2)

B) glucose (C6H12O6)

C) molecular oxygen (O2)

D) pyruvate (C3H3O3-)

E) lactate (C3H5O3-)


Answer: C


51

In chemiosmotic phosphorylation, what is the a lot of straight source of energy that is offered to convert ADP + Pi to ATP?

A) energy released as electrons circulation through the electron transport system

B) energy released from substrate-level phosphorylation

C) power released from ATP synthase pumping hydrogen ions from the mitochondrial matrix

D) power released from movement of proloads via ATP synthase

E) No external source of energy is compelled because the reactivity is exergonic.


Answer: D


52

Energy released by the electron transfer chain is supplied to pump H + ions into which location?

A) cytosol

B) mitochondrial external membrane

C) mitochondrial inner membrane

D) mitochondrial intermembrane space

E) mitochondrial matrix


Answer: D


53

The straight power resource that drives ATP synthesis throughout respiratory oxidative phosphorylation is

A) oxidation of glucose to CO2 and water.

B) the thermodynamically favorable circulation of electrons from NADH to the mitochondrial electron transport carriers.

C) the final deliver of electrons to oxygen.

D) the distinction in H+ concentrations on oppowebsite sides of the inner mitochondrial membrane.

E) the thermodynamically favorable move of phosphate from glycolysis and the citric acid cycle intermediate molecules of ADP.


Answer: D


54

When hydrogen ions are pumped from the mitochondrial matrix across the inner membrane and also right into the intermembrane space, the outcome is the

A) development of ATP.

B) reduction of NAD+.

C) restoration of the Na+/K+ balance across the membrane.

D) development of a proton gradient.

E) lowering of pH in the mitochondrial matrix.


Answer: D


55

Wbelow is ATP synthase located in the mitochondrion?

A) cytosol

B) electron carry chain

C) outer membrane

D) inner membrane

E) mitochondrial matrix


Answer: D


56

It is feasible to prepare vesicles from parts of the inner membrane of the mitochondrial components. Which one of the adhering to processes might still be carried on by this isolated inner membrane?

A) the citric acid cycle

B) oxidative phosphorylation

C) glycolysis and fermentation

D) reduction of NAD+

E) both the citric acid cycle and also oxidative phosphorylation


Answer: B


57

Each time a molecule of glucose (C6H12O6) is completely oxidized through aerobic respiration, just how many type of oxygen molecules (O2) are required?

A) 1

B) 2

C) 6

D) 12

E) 38


Answer: C


58

Which of the complying with produces the most ATP once glucose (C6H12O6) is completely oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO2) and water?

A) glycolysis

B) fermentation

C) oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA

D) citric acid cycle

E) oxidative phosphorylation (chemiosmosis)


Answer: E


59

Approximately just how many type of molecules of ATP are created from the finish oxidation of two molecules of glucose (C6H12O6) in cellular respiration?

A) 2

B) 4

C) 15

D) 38

E) 76


Answer: E


60

Assume a mitochondrion includes 58 NADH and 19 FADH2. If each of the 77 dinucleotides were provided, around how many ATP molecules can be generated as a result of oxidative phosphorylation (chemiosmosis)?

A) 36

B) 77

C) 173

D) 212

E) 1102


Answer: D


61

Approximately what percentage of the power of glucose (C6H12O6) is transferred to storage in ATP as an outcome of the finish oxidation of glucose to CO2 and also water in cellular respiration?

A) 2%

B) 4%

C) 10%

D) 25%

E) 40%


Answer: E


62

Respeak to that the finish oxidation of a mole of glucose releases 686 kcal of energy (Δ G = -686 kcal/mol). The phosphorylation of ADP to develop ATP stores around 7.3 kcal per mole of ATP. What is the approximate effectiveness of cellular respiration for a ʺmutantʺ organism that produces only 29 moles of ATP for eexceptionally mole of glucose oxidized, quite than the usual 36-38 moles of ATP?

A) 0.4%

B) 25%

C) 30%

D) 40%

E) 60%


Answer: C


63

What is proton-motive force?

A) the force required to rerelocate an electron from hydrogen

B) the transmembrane proton concentration gradient

C) activity of hydrogen right into the intermembrane space

D) motion of hydrogen into the mitochondrion

E) the enhancement of hydrogen to NAD+


Answer: B


64

In liver cells, the inner mitochondrial membranes are around 5 X the area of the outer mitochondrial membranes, and also around 17 X that of the cellʹs plasma membrane. What purpose have to this serve?

A) It permits for increased rate of glycolysis. B) It enables for raised price of the citric acid cycle.

C) It boosts the surface for oxidative phosphoryation. D) It boosts the surface for substrate-level phosphorylation.

E) It enables the liver cell to have fewer mitochondria.


Answer: C


65

Exposing inner mitochondrial membranes to ultrasonic vibrations will certainly disrupt the membranes. However before, the pieces will reseal ʺinside out.ʺ These little vesicles that result deserve to still transport electrons from NADH to oxygen and also synthedimension ATP. If the membranes are agitated still even more however, the capacity to synthesize ATP is shed.

After the first disruption, when electron transfer and ATP synthesize still happen, what should be present?

A) all of the electron move proteins and also ATP synthase

B) every one of the electron move system and the capacity to add CoA to acetyl groups

C) the ATP synthase device is sufficient

D) the electron carry mechanism is sufficient

E) plasma membranes like those bacteria use for respiration


Answer: A


66

Exposing inner mitochondrial membranes to ultrasonic vibrations will disrupt the membranes. However, the pieces will reseal ʺinside out.ʺ These little bit vesicles that outcome can still transport electrons from NADH to oxygen and synthedimension ATP. If the membranes are agitated still additionally yet, the capability to synthesize ATP is lost.

After the second agitation of the membrane vesicles, what need to be shed from the membrane?

A) the capacity of NADH to deliver electrons to the initially acceptor in the electron transfer chain

B) the prosthetic teams choose heme from the deliver system

C) cytochromes

D) ATP synthase, in entirety or in partuter membrane surfaces


Answer: D


67

Exposing inner mitochondrial membranes to ultrasonic vibrations will certainly disrupt the membranes. However before, the pieces will reseal ʺinside out.ʺ These bit vesicles that outcome have the right to still deliver electrons from NADH to oxygen and also synthesize ATP. If the membranes are agitated still even more yet, the capacity to synthesize ATP is lost.

It have to be feasible to reconstitute the abilities of the vesicles if which of the following is added?

A) cytochromes

B) additional NADH

C) a second membrane surconfront

D) even more electrons

E) undamaged ATP synthase


Answer: E


68
*

The accompanying figure mirrors the electron move chain. Which of the complying with is the combicountry of substances that is initially included to the chain?

A) oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water

B) NAD+ , FADVERTISEMENT, and also electrons

C) NADH, FADH2, and also protons

D) NADH, FADH2, and also electrons

E) Oxygen and also electrons


Answer: D


69
*

Which of the adhering to many accurately describes what is happening alengthy this chain?

A) Chemiosmosis is coupled via electron transport.

B) Each electron carrier alternates in between being decreased and being oxidized.

C) ATP is produced at each step.

D) Energy of the electrons increases at each action.

E) Molecules in the chain provide up some of their potential power.


Answer: B


70
*

The components of the figure labeled with Roman numerals indicate what concept?

A) different inner mitochondrial membranes

B) different mitochondria functioning together

C) molecules through various attached metal ions

D) carbohydrate structure holding the molecules in place

E) multimeric groups of proteins in 4 complexes


Answer: E


71
*

What happens at the finish of the chain?

A) The 2 original electrons incorporate through NAD+.

B) The 2 original electrons combine through oxygen.

C) 4 electrons integrate through oxygen and also protons.

D) 4 electrons combine through hydrogen and also oxygen atoms.

E) 1 electron combines through oxygen and also hydrogen.


Answer: C


72

Which of the complying with couples chemiosmosis to power storage?

A) NADH

B) FADH2

C) cytochromes

D) electron transport

E) ATP synthase


Answer: E


73

Which of the adhering to describes ubiquinone?

A) a protein in the electron transport chain

B) a small hydrophobic coenzyme

C) a substrate for synthesis of FADH

D) a vitamin necessary for effective glycolysis

E) an important amino acid


Answer: B


74

Which of the adhering to generally occurs whether or not oxygen (O2) is present?

A) glycolysis

B) fermentation

C) oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA

D) citric acid cycle

E) oxidative phosphorylation (chemiosmosis)


Answer: A


75

Which of the complying with occurs in the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell?

A) glycolysis and also fermentation

B) fermentation and also chemiosmosis

C) oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA

D) citric acid cycle

E) oxidative phosphorylation


Answer: A


76

Which metabolic pathmethod is prevalent to both cellular respiration and fermentation?

A) the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA

B) the citric acid cycle

C) oxidative phosphorylation

D) glycolysis

E) chemiosmosis


Answer: D


77

The ATP made in the time of fermentation is created by which of the following?

A) the electron move chain

B) substrate-level phosphorylation

C) chemiosmosis

D) oxidative phosphorylation

E) aerobic respiration


Answer: B


78

In the absence of oxygen, yeast cells can obtain energy by fermentation, bring about the production of

A) ATP, CO2, and also ethanol (ethyl alcohol).

B) ATP, CO2, and also lactate.

C) ATP, NADH, and also pyruvate.

D) ATP, pyruvate, and also oxygen.

E) ATP, pyruvate, and acetyl CoA.


Answer: A


79

In alcohol fermentation, NAD+ is reproduced from NADH during which of the following?

A) reduction of acetaldehyde to ethanol (ethyl alcohol)

B) oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA

C) reduction of pyruvate to form lactate

D) oxidation of NAD+ in the citric acid cycle

E) phosphorylation of ADP to create ATP


Answer: A


80

One attribute of both alcohol fermentation and also lactic acid fermentation is to

A) alleviate NAD+ to NADH.

B) mitigate FAD+ to FADH2.

C) oxidize NADH to NAD+.

D) alleviate FADH2 to FAD+.

E) namong the above


Answer: C


81

An organism is discovered that consumes a substantial amount of sugar, yet does not gain much weight once denied air. Curiously, the consumption of sugar boosts as air is rerelocated from the organismʹs atmosphere, yet the organism seems to flourish also in the absence of air. When went back to normal air, the organism does fine. Which of the complying with finest defines the organism?

A) It must use a molecule various other than oxygen to accept electrons from the electron transport chain.

B) It is a normal eukaryotic organism.

C) The organism obviously lacks the citric acid cycle and also electron transport chain.

D) It is an anaerobic organism.

E) It is a facultative anaerobe.


Answer: E


82

Glycolysis is thmust be one of the most primitive of metabolic procedures. Which statement supports this idea?

A) Glycolysis is the many widespread metabolic pathmethod.

B) Glycolysis neither offers nor requirements O2.

C) Glycolysis is uncovered in all eukaryotic cells.

D) The enzymes of glycolysis are uncovered in the cytosol quite than in a membrane -enclosed organelle.

E) Ancient prokaryotic cells, the the majority of primitive of cells, made considerable usage of glycolysis long prior to oxygen was current in Earthʹs atmosphere.


Answer: A


83

Why is glycolysis considered to be one of the initially metabolic pathmethods to have actually evolved?

A) It produces much less ATP than does oxidative phosphorylation.

B) It is found in the cytosol, does not involve oxygen, and is current in many organisms.

C) It is uncovered in prokaryotic cells but not in eukaryotic cells.

D) It depends on chemiosmosis which is a metabolic device existing just in the initially cells-prokaryotic cells.

E) It needs the existence of membrane-enclosed cell organelles uncovered just in eukaryotic cells.


Answer: B


84

Muscle cells, as soon as an individual is exercising heavily and also once the muscle becomes oxygen deprived, transform pyruvate to lactate. What happens to the lactate in skeletal muscle cells?

A) It is converted to NAD+.

B) It produces CO2 and water.

C) It is taken to the liver and also converted earlier to pyruvate.

D) It reduces FADH2 to FAD+.

E) It is converted to alcohol.


Answer: C


85

When muscle cells are oxygen deprived, the heart still pumps. What must the heart cells have the ability to do?

A) derive adequate energy from fermentation

B) continue aerobic metabolism once skeletal muscle cannot C) transdevelop lactate to pyruvate again

D) remove lactate from the blood

E) remove oxygen from lactate


Answer: B


86

When muscle cells undergo anaerobic respiration, they come to be fatigued and painful. This is currently well-known to be caused by

A) buildup of pyruvate.

B) buildup of lactate.

C) rise in sodium ions.

D) rise in potassium ions.

E) rise in ethanol.


Answer: D


87

vYou have a frifinish that shed 7 kg (around 15 pounds) of fat on a ʺlow carbʺ diet. How did the fat leave her body?

A) It was released as CO2 and H2O.

B) Chemical energy was converted to warmth and then released.

C) It was converted to ATP, which weighs a lot less than fat.

D) It was damaged down to amino acids and got rid of from the body.

E) It was converted to urine and also got rid of from the body.


Answer: A


88

Phosphofructokinase is an essential control enzyme in the regulation of cellular respiration. Which of the following statements explains a duty of phosphofructokinase?

A) It is activated by AMP (acquired from ADP).

B) It is triggered by ATP.

C) It is inhibited by citrate, an intermediate of the citric acid cycle.

D) It catalyzes the conversion of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to fructose-6-phosphate, an early step of glycolysis.

E) It is an allosteric enzyme.


Answer: E


89

Phosphofructokinase is an allosteric enzyme that catalyzes the convariation of fructose -6-phosphate to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, a very early action of glycolysis. In the existence of oxygen, a boost in the amount ATP in a cell would certainly be meant to

A) inhibit the enzyme and also hence sluggish the rates of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle.

B) activate the enzyme and also therefore slow the rates of glycolysis and also the citric acid cycle.

C) inhibit the enzyme and for this reason boost the rates of glycolysis and also the citric acid cycle.

D) activate the enzyme and increase the prices of glycolysis and also the citric acid cycle.

E) inhilittle bit the enzyme and thus boost the rate of glycolysis and also the concentration of citprice.


Answer: A


90

Even though plants lug on photosynthesis, plant cells still usage their mitochondria for oxidation of pyruvate. When and wright here will this occur?

A) in photofabricated cells in the light, while photosynthesis occurs concurrently

B) in non-photomanufacturing cells only

C) in cells that are storing glucose only

D) in photosynthesizing cells in dark periods and in various other tissues all the time

E) in photosynthesizing cells in the light and also in other tworries in the dark


Answer: D


91

In vertebrate pets, brown fat tissueʹs color is due to abundant mitochondria. White fat tissue, on the other hand also, is specialized for fat storage and consists of reasonably few mitochondria. Brown fat cells have a devoted protein that dissipates the proton-motive force throughout the mitochondrial membranes. Which of the adhering to can be the function of the brvery own fat tissue?

A) to rise the rate of oxidative phosphorylation from its few mitochondria

B) to enable the pets to regulate their metabolic rate once it is particularly hot

C) to rise the manufacturing of ATP synthase

D) to enable other membranes of the cell to perform mitochondrial function

E) to regulate temperature by converting energy from NADH oxidation to heat


Answer: E


92

What is the objective of beta oxidation in respiration?

A) oxidation of glucose

B) oxidation of pyruvate

C) feedearlier regulation

D) manage of ATP accumulation

E) breakdown of fatty acids


Answer: E


93

Where do the catabolic commodities of fatty acid breakdvery own enter into the citric acid cycle?

A) pyruvate

B) malate or fumarate

C) acetyl CoA

D) α-ketoglutarate

E) succinyl CoA


Answer: C


94

What is the reducing agent in the following reaction?

Pyruvate + NADH + H+ → Lactate + NAD+

A) oxygen

B) NADH

C) NAD+ D) lactate

E) pyruvat


Answer: B


95

The prompt power source that drives ATP synthesis by ATP synthase throughout oxidative phosphorylation is

A) the oxidation of glucose and also various other organic compounds.

B) the circulation of electrons down the electron move chain.

C) the affinity of oxygen for electrons.

D) the H+ concentration gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane.

E) the move of phosphate to ADP.


Answer: D


96

Which metabolic pathmethod is widespread to both fermentation and cellular respiration of a glucose molecule?

A) the citric acid cycle

B) the electron move chain

C) glycolysis

D) synthesis of acetyl CoA from pyruvate

E) reduction of pyruvate to lactate


Answer: C


97

In mitochondria, exergonic redox reactions

A) are the source of power driving prokaryotic ATP synthesis.

B) are straight coupresulted in substrate-level phosphorylation.

C) carry out the energy that creates the proton gradient.

D) reduce carbon atoms to carbon dioxide.

E) are coupled through phosphorylated intermediates to endergonic processes.


Answer: C


98

The final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain that attributes in aerobic oxidative phosphorylation is

A) oxygen.

B) water.

C) NAD+.

D) pyruvate.

E) ADP.


Answer: A


99

When electrons flow alengthy the electron move chains of mitochondria, which of the complying with alters occurs?

A) The pH of the matrix increases.

B) ATP synthase pumps protons by energetic transport.

C) The electrons obtain cost-free energy.

D) The cytochromes phosphorylate ADP to form ATP.

E) NAD+ is oxidized.


Answer: A


100

Cells perform not catabolize carbon dioxide because

A) its double bonds are as well secure to be damaged.

B) CO2 has fewer bonding electrons than various other organic compounds.

C) CO2 is already completely reduced.

D) CO2 is currently completely oxidized.

See more: The Best Example Of A State Among The Following Is, Multinational State

E) the molecule has also few atoms.


Answer: D


101

Which of the following is a true difference in between fermentation and cellular respiration?