protistaWhy: Protists are mostly unicellular eukaryotes, despite they likewise include multicell algae.

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Which branch allude represents the most recent common ancestor that the sloth bear and also the spectacled bear?
Which branch allude represents the many recent common ancestor of the eastern black bear and the brown bear?
The tree has the most recent usual ancestor of all living types of bear (branch allude 1). What does this call you about this phylogenetic tree?
This phylogenetic tree is rootedWhy: In a rooted phylogenetic tree, the branch suggest drawn the furthest to the left represents the many recent usual ancestor of every taxa in the tree.
sun bear, eastern black bear, American black color bear, ancestral varieties 5, ancestral varieties 6Why: This is a monophyletic group, or clade, since it has ancestral types 5, the usual ancestor of all taxa in the clade, and every one of its descendents.
A study published in 2000 sequenced component of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from 61 brown bear from 2 sites in Alaska. One population of brown bears stays on the seaside mainland of Alaska, when a separate population lives on the abc islands in southeastern Alaska.Mainland and ABC brown bears differ by 11 solved nucleotide substitutions in the cytochrome b gene. This suggests that the 2 brown bear populaces represent genetically unique clades.The researchers contrasted the cytochrome b assignment of the two clades that Alaskan brown bear to those of 55 polar bears. The analysis showed that polar bears and ABC brown bear differ at only three nucleotides in this gene, vice versa, polar bears and also mainland brown bear had more differences.Based ~ above the results of the 2000 study, how should the section of the tree prolonging from branch point 7 it is in altered?
Based on the amendment branch of the tree, what kind of group do brown bears plus ancestral varieties 7 represent?
a paraphyletic groupWhy: The mainland brown bears and the alphabet brown bear both share typical ancestor 7. Yet the polar bears likewise descended indigenous ancestral varieties 7. Because not all progeny of ancestral types 7 are consisted of in the brown be afflicted with group, that team is thought about paraphyletic.
In this exercise, you will certainly compare the amino acid sequence indigenous the aphid to the amino mountain sequences of the other varieties to determine how comparable they are. As a very first step, you will certainly compare the aphid sequence (Acyrthosiphon) come a bacterial sequence (Pantoea).The sequences below show the an initial 60 amino acids of one polypeptide, utilizing the one-letter abbreviation for the amino acids. One underscore (_) shows a space inserted in a succession to optimize its alignment v the corresponding sequence in Arabidopsis.Acyrthosiphon (aphid) IKIIIIGSGV GGTAAAARLS KKGFQVEVYE KNSYNGGRCS IIR_HNGHRF DQGPSL__YLPantoea (bacterium) KRTFVIGAGF GGLALAIRLQ AAGIATTVLE QHDKPGGRAY VWQ_DQGFTF DAGPTV__ITAt how countless positions are the amino mountain the same in between the 2 species?
There are 20 positions v the same amino acid.The positions space 6, 7, 9, 11, 12, 14, 16, 18, 19, 23, 28, 30, 36, 37, 38, 47, 50, 51, 53, and also 54.Why: There space 20 positions along the 60-amino-acid sequence that space identical between the aphid and also the bacter Pantoea. A computer system can be provided to to compare the sequences indigenous the remainder of the varieties to the aphid sequence.
Acyrthosiphon (aphid) IKIIIIGSGV GGTAAAARLS KKGFQVEVYE KNSYNGGRCS IIR_HNGHRF DQHPSL__YLPantoea (bacterium) KRTFVIGAGF GGLALAIRLQ AAGIATTVLE QHDKPGGRAY VWQ_DQGFTF DAGPTV__ITStaphylococcus (bacterium) MKIAVIGAGV TGLAAAARIA SQGHEVTIFE KNNNVGGRMN QLK_KDGFTF DMGPTI__VMUstilago (fungus) KKVVIIGAGA GGTALAARLG RRGYSVTVLE KNSFGGGRCS LIH_HDGHRW DQGPSL__YLGibberella (fungus) KSVIVIGAGV GGVSTAARLA KAGFKVTILE KNDFTGGRCS LIH_NDGHRF DQGPSL__LLArabidopsis (plant) WDAVVIGGGH NGLTAAAYLA RGGLSVAVLE RRHVIGGAAV TEEIVPGFKF SRCSYLQGLLRank the five varieties in terms of how similar their amino mountain sequences are to the aphid"s sequence.
Least -> Most: Arabidopsis - The amino acid sequences room conserved among the associated species. This is the basis because that sequence-based homology(similar function) prediction and also to likewise estimate how very closely two varieties are related.- The above sequences have actually identical amino acids at assorted positions and also the percent of identity tell us about their relatedness.- When compared to Aphid"s DNA Arabidopsis has actually the shortest number and UStilago has actually the highest number of common amino acids in the sequence.- The bespeak of the organisms from the least to many in regards to similarity to aphid isWhy: In the partial polypeptides shown, the sequence from Ustilago has the many amino mountain (38) in typical with the insect sequence. In decreasing order of similarity come the bug sequence, Gibberella has actually 35 similar amino acids, Staphylococcus has 25, Pantoea has actually 20, and Arabidopsis has 18.
Do this data support the theory that aphids obtained the gene for this polypeptide through horizontal gene transfer? Why or why not?
Yes; the aphid"s succession is similar to the assignment of distantly associated organisms.Why: this data—in particular, the similarity in amino acid sequence in between the aphid polypeptide and also the polypeptides indigenous the other, just distantly connected organisms—do support the hypothesis that aphids obtained the gene for the polypeptide by horizontal gene transfer. Recognize an extremely similar gene or polypeptide in two organisms recognized to it is in only very distantly related—such as an animal and a fungus—suggests that the gene may have been transferred horizontally lengthy after the aberration of the 2 organisms in the evolution past.
a fungusWhy: from the reality that the fungal polypeptides are the most similar to the aphid polypeptide, we can infer that a fungus is most likely to have been the source of the transferred gene.
sequence data from other polypeptides involved in carotinoid biosynthesisWhy: sequence data native the remainder of this polypeptide and others connected in carotenoid biosynthesis might support the near similarity in between aphid and also fungal gene for this group of proteins.
How would certainly you account because that the similarities between the bug sequence and the sequences for the bacteria and also plant? pick all reasonable explanations.
- The sequence because that this carotenoid-biosynthesis gene may have originally arisen in a bacterium, i beg your pardon passed that by horizontal gene move to a fungus, which climate passed top top a mutated version to the aphid.- an ancestor that the tree Arabidopsis might have gained an earlier version the the carotenoid-biosynthesis gene native a bacterium or various other unicellular organism via horizontal gene transfer.
Video guardian Session Quiz: Phylogenetic TreesWatch the video clip Tutor session to your right. Friend can additionally download the video or view the message of the tutor session to review while you room watching.After you have actually watched the tutor session, prize the questions.Estimated time: 10 minutesWhat does the leftmost point of this number represent?
The varieties that is a common ancestor come all types shown ~ above the treeWhy: Any allude along a heat in a phylogenetic tree to represent a types that is ancestral to all species to the right of that point. Thus, the much left allude on this figure represents a types that is one ancestor the every species shown on the tree.
2 Why: A branch point represents a species that is the ancestor of all species that fall on lines to the right. So suggest #2 is the just branch allude that contains those 3 groups of organisms yet not lizards and snakes. Click below to testimonial the figure.
birdsWhy: In the bottom right, you can see that birds and Saurichian dinosaurs share the many recent usual ancestor.
timeWhy: Time is presented along the X axis the a phylogenetic tree, v the most ancient time ~ above the left, and the current day on the right.
lizards and snakesWhy: since lizards and also snakes have the most ancient common ancestor through the rest of the organisms shown here, us would mean their DNA sequences to be many different.
A phylogenetic tree is a branching diagram that represents a hypothesis around the evolutionary history of a group of organisms and also the relationships between them.This is one feasible phylogenetic tree representing the relationships in between some members that phylum Arthropoda.Use this phylogenetic tree and your understanding of cladistics to recognize the relationships in between these species.Rank the species from most closely related come horseflies to many distantly concerned horseflies. If two species are equally close in their relatedness come horseflies, overlap them.
MOST carefully RELATED to HORSEFLIESfleakatydid/ human body lousemayfly/dragonflysilverfishMOST DISTANTLY concerned HORSEFLIESWhy: Phylogenetic trees show the evolution relationships between organisms. Very closely related biology have an ext common ancestors 보다 distantly connected organisms. In this case, fleas are much more closely pertained to horseflies 보다 are any other species on the tree, also though several of the other varieties look an ext like horseflies than fleas do.For pictured answer: https://jonathanlewisforcongress.com/94497303/chapter-26-biology-homework-flash-cards/
Imagine that you are studying alien life-forms uncovered on a distant planet. If geneticists room working out the genetic code of this organisms, you are asked to build a phylogenetic tree based on four morphological features, or characters: visibility or absence of a spring tail, presence or lack of a grasping hand, visibility or absence of a second tail, and variety of eyes. The organisms have been split into 5 groups based on these characters.If we assume the alien v a tail stalk is an outgroup, what is the most most likely phylogenetic tree based upon these shared obtained characters? when did this characters show up during the aliens" evolution history?Drag the aliens and also shared derived personalities to their ideal locations on this phylogenetic tree. Use only the blue labels because that the blue targets and also the white labels because that the white targets.
For pictured answer: https://jonathanlewisforcongress.com/94497303/chapter-26-biology-homework-flash-cards/Why: The existence or absence of personalities can be provided to develop a phylogenetic tree based upon morphology. In this example, all aliens various other than the outgroup have actually a feather tail, all however two the the teams have a fourth eye, 2 of the aliens have two tails, and also one that the aliens has actually a grasping hand. These personalities can be supplied to develop a hypothesis about the evolution relationships in between these organisms.

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The geneticists researching the alien organisms have deciphered their genetic code. For familiarity, they have actually used A, C, G, and also T to suggest the bases in this code.A comparable genetic succession in each alien has been figured out in the genes that password for eye growth. This genetic sequence has enabled the aliens come be separated into six groups, through the single-tail, three-eye group break-up in half. The geneticists also studied several outgroup species (not shown) to compile a likely ancestral DNA sequence. Indigenous this information, lock have created four possible phylogenetic trees.Based ~ above this hereditary information, i beg your pardon phylogenetic tree is most parsimonious?Select the many parsimonious tree. If over there is a tie, choose both trees. (For aid approaching this problem, open up Hint 2.)
phylogenetic tree IIIWhy: Tree III requires the fewest base-change events, so it is the most parsimonious phylogenetic tree.Based top top this hereditary evidence, we can hypothesize that team 2b sail from group 2a in ~ the very same time that teams 3, 4, and 5 diverged from group 2a. Either the enhancement of a fourth eye came after this divergence, or team 2b shed its 4th eye at some time in this group"s evolution history.
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