The secretions of the adrenal medulla act to supplement the effects of _________.
A. parasympthetic innervation
B. sympathetic stimulation
C. vagus nerve activity
D. neurosecretory substances
Which of the following does not describe the ANS?
A. a system of motor neurons that innervates smooth and cardiac muscle and glands
B. a system of motor neurons that innervates all muscle cells
C. involuntary nervous system
D. somatic nervous system
Preparing the body for the “fight or flight” response is the role of the _______.
A. sympathetic nervous system
C. parasympathetic nervous system
D. somatic nervous system
The somatic and autonomic nervous systems differ in all of the following except __________.
A. Their effectors
B. their efferent pathways
C. to some degree in target responses to their neurotransmitters
D. all of the transmitters
Where would you not find a cholinergeric nicotonic receptor?
A. all parasympathetic target organs
B. all postganglionic neurons
C. adrenal medulla hormone producing cells
D. skeletal muscle motor end plates
The parasympathetic ganglion that serves the eye is the __________.
A. ciliary ganglion
B. pterygopalatine ganglion
C. submandibular ganglion
D. otic ganglion
Cardiovascular effects of the sympathetic division include all except ______.
A. constriction of most blood vessels
B. dilation of the vessels serving the skeletal muscles
C. increase of heart and force
D. dilation of the blood vessels serving the skin and digestive viscera
Over 90% of all parasympathetic fibers are derived from cranial nerve number ________.
The “resting and digesting” division of the autonomic nervous system is the __________.
A. parasympathetic division
B. sympathetic division
C. somatic division
D. peripheral nervous system
Control of temperature. endocrine activity, and thirst are functions associated with the _______.
Which of these effectors is not directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system?
A. smooth muscle
B. cardiac muscle
C. skeletal muscle
D. most glands
Which of the following is not a result of parasympathetic stimulation?
B. dilation of the pupils
C. increased peristalsis of the of the digestive viscera
D. elimination of urine
Which of the following statements is not true?
A. Sympathetic origin is craniosacral; parasympathetic is thoracolumbar
B. Sympathetic ganglia are within a few centimeters of the CNS; parasympathetic are close to visceral organs served
C. Sympathetic division has short preganglionic and long postganglionic fibers; parasympathetic has long preganglionic and short postganglionic fibers
D. Sympathetic has extensive branching of preganglionic fibers; parasympathetic has minimal branching of preganglionic fibers
sympathetic origin is craniosacral; parasympathetic is thoracolumbar
Sympathetic responses generally are widespread because _______.
A. inactivation of ACh is fairly slow
B. NE and epinephrine are secreted into the blood as part of the sympathetic response
C. preganglionic fibers are short
D. preganglionic fibers are lone
NE and epinephrine is secreted into the blood as part of the sympathetic response
Sympathetic nerves may leave the spinal cord at which vertebra?
A. second cervical
B. third lumbar
C. first coccyx
D. first thoracic
Autonomic ganglia contain _______.
A. an outer connective tissue capsule around the cell bodies of preganglionic motor neurons
B. synapses between postganglionic fibers and their effectors
C. the cell bodies of motor neurons
D. both somatic afferent and efferent neurons
the cell bodies of motor neurons
The parasympathetic fibers of the ______ nerves innervate smooth muscles of the eye that cause the lenses to bulge to accomodate close vision.
Fibers that enter and leave the sympathetic chain without synapsing from structures called _________.
A. white rami communicantes
B. gray rami communicantes
C. spinal nerves
D. splanchnic nerves
Which of the following is not a plexus of the vagus nerve?
Visceral reflex arcs differ from somatic in that ______.
A. visceral arcs contain two sensory neurons
B. somatic arcs contain one additional component that visceral arcs do not possess
C. visceral arcs involve two motor neurons
D. visceral arcs do not use integration centers
visceral arcs involve two motor neurons
The parasympathetic tone ______.
A. prevents unnecessary heart deceleration
B. accelerats activity of the digestive tract
C. determines normal activity of the urinary tract
D. causes blood pressure to rise
determines normal activity of the urinary tract
Once a sympathetic preganglionic axon reaches a trunk ganglion, it can do all but which one of the following?
A. synapse with a parasympathetic neuron in the same trunk ganglion
B. synapse with a ganglionic neuron in the same trunk ganglion
C. ascend or descend the trunk to synapse in another trunk ganglion
D. pass through the trunk ganglion without synapsing with another neuron
synapse with a parasympathetic neuron in the same trunk ganglion
Which of the following appears to exert the most direct influence over autonomic function?
C. reticular formation
D. medulla oblongata
A. increase a dangerously low heart rate
B. decrease heart rate and blood pressure
C. have widespread sympathetic effects
D. are potent antidepressants
decrease heart rate and blood pressure
Erection of the penis or clitoris _____.
A. is primarily under sympathetic control
B. is primariyl under parasympathetic control
C. is the result of coordinated activation by both sympathetic and parasympathetic input
D. depends very little on autonomic activation
is primarily under parasympathetic control
Which is a uniquely sympathetic function?
A. regulation of pupil size
B. regulation of cradiac rate
C. regulation of respiratory rate
D. regulation of body temperature
regulation of body temperature
Raynaud”s disease ________.
A. is characterized by exaggerated vasconstriction in the extremities
B. is induced by heat stress
C. occurs primarily in association with injury to the spinal cord
D. is frequently life threatening
is characterized by exaggerated vasconstriction in the extremities
Autonomic dyserflexia ______.
A. is also known a autonomic areflexia
B. involves uncontrolled activation of autonomic neurons
C. usually precedes spinal shock
D. results from overexcitatory input from the cortex
involves uncontrolled activation of autonomic neurons
Which sympathetic fibers form a splanchnic nerve?
A. those that synapse with parasympathetic fibers
B. those that synapse in the same trunk ganglia
C. those that synapse with somatic fibers
D. those that ass through the trunk ganglion to synapse in collateral or prevertebral ganglia
those that pass through the trunk ganglion to synapse in collateral or prevertebral ganglia
Which of the following adrenergic neurotransmitter receptors plays the major role in heart activity?
A. beta 1
B. beta 2
C. beta 3
D. alpha 1
Where would you not find an autonomic ganglion?
A. in the head
B. in the cervical region
C. close to the vesceral effectors they serve
D. in the armpit
in the armpit
Sympathetic division stimulation causes ______.
A. decreased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure
B. increased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and decreased heart rate and blood pressure
C. increased blood glucose, decreased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure
D. decreased blood glucose, increased GI persitalsis, and decreased heart rate and blood pressure
increased blood glucose, decreased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure
The smooth muscle of the digestive viscera is served largely by the ___________.
A. lumbar splanchnic nerves
B. cephalic plexus
C. pelvic nerves
D. tenth cranial nerve
tenth cranial nerve
The route of major parasympathetic outflow from the head is via the ____________.
A. sympathetic trunk
B. phrenic nerve
C. vagus nerve
D. sacral nerve
Parasympathetic functions include _________.
A. a stimulation of heart rate and force of contraction
B. allowing the body to cope with an external threat
C. lens accommodation for close vision
D. mobilizing storage energy sources
lens accommodation for close vision
Emotions influence autonomic reactions primarily through integration in the __________.
A. lateral horn of the spinal cord
C. lateral geniculate of the thalamus
D. inferior colliculus