Figure 24.14. LH additionally enters the testes and stimulates the interstitial cell of Leydig come make and release testosterone right into the testes and the blood.

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Testosterone, the hormone responsible because that the an additional sexual qualities that construct in the male during adolescence, stimulates spermatogenesis. These secondary sex features include a deepening of the voice, the expansion of facial, axillary, and pubic hair, and also the starts of the sex drive.

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Figure 24.14. Hormones regulate sperm manufacturing in a an adverse feedback system.
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Figure 24.15. The ovarian and also menstrual cycles of mrs reproduction space regulated by hormones created by the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovaries.

simply prior to the middle of the cycle (approximately job 14), the high level that estrogen reasons FSH and especially LH to climb rapidly, climate fall. The spike in LH reasons ovulation: the many mature follicle, choose that presented in number 24.16, ruptures and releases the egg. The follicles the did not rupture degenerate and their eggs are lost. The level the estrogen decreases as soon as the extra follicles degenerate.

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Figure 24.16. This mature egg follicle may rupture and release one egg. (credit: scale-bar data native Matt Russell)

following ovulation, the ovarian bike enters that is luteal phase, shown in number 24.15 and the menstrual bike enters that secretory phase, both the which operation from about day 15 come 28. The luteal and secretory phases to express to alters in the ruptured follicle. The cells in the follicle experience physical changes and also produce a structure called a body luteum. The corpus luteum produces estrogen and also progesterone. The progesterone facilitates the regrowth of the uterine lining and inhibits the relax of more FSH and also LH. The uterus is being all set to accept a fertilized egg, should it occur throughout this cycle. The inhibition of FSH and also LH prevents any kind of further eggs and also follicles from developing, when the progesterone is elevated. The level of estrogen developed by the body luteum boosts to a secure level because that the next few days.

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If no fertilized egg is implanted into the uterus, the corpus luteum degenerates and also the level of estrogen and progesterone decrease. The endometrium starts to degenerate as the progesterone levels drop, initiating the following menstrual cycle. The decrease in progesterone also allows the hypothalamus to send GnRH come the anterior pituitary, publication FSH and LH and beginning the cycles again. Number 24.17 visually to compare the ovarian and uterine cycles and also the commensurate hormone levels.


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Figure 24.17. Rising and also falling hormone levels result in development of the ovarian and also menstrual cycles. (credit: alteration of work by Mikael Häggström)