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Chapter 9 – necessary Compounds that Oxygen
9.1 advent to Compounds the Contain Oxygen
9.2 Alcohols and PhenolsClassification that AlcoholsProperties the AlcoholsGlycolsPhenols
9.3 EthersProperties of Ethers
9.4 Aldehydes and also KetonesProperties that Aldehydes and KetonesAldehydesKetonesBoiling Points and also SolubilityAldehydes and Ketones in Nature
9.5 Carboxylic Acids and EstersProperties the Carboxylic Acids and EstersCarboxylic AcidsEstersBoiling Points, melting Points and also SolubilityCommonly used Carboxylic Acids and Esters
9.6 reaction of Oxygen-Containing CompoundsAlcoholsDehydration (Elimination) ReactionsOxidation ReactionsAldehydes and KetonesOxidation ReactionsReduction ReactionsAddition Reactions through Alcohols (Hemiacetals and also Hemiketals)Reactions that form Acetals or KetalsCarboxylic Acids
The acidity of Carboxylic AcidsCarboxylic Acids and also the development of SaltsFormation that Esters indigenous Carboxylic Acids and AlcoholsHydrolysis of Esters
9.7 chapter Summary
Photo By: A. Savin
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9.1 development to Compounds that Contain Oxygen
In this thing you will certainly be presented to the significant organic functional groups that contain oxygen. This consists of alcohols, phenols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and also esters. Figure 9.1 provides the straightforward organic functional teams for this compounds and the IUPAC suffix the is offered to surname these compounds. While you will certainly not have to formally name complete structures, girlfriend should be able to identify functional groups contained within compounds based upon their IUPAC names. For example, one alcohol is an necessary compound with a hydroxyl (-OH) functional team on one aliphatic carbon atom. Since -OH is the functional team of all alcohols, we often represent alcohols by the basic formula ROH, whereby R is one alkyl group. The IUPAC nomenclature guidelines use the suffix ‘-ol’ come denote basic compounds that contain alcohols. An instance is ethanol (CH3CH2OH).
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Figure 9.1 usual Organic Functional teams that contain Oxygen. The IUPAC suffixes provided in naming basic organic molecule are detailed in the chart
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9.2 Alcohols and also PhenolsClassification the Alcohols
Some of the properties and also reactivity of alcohols count on the number of carbon atom attached to the certain carbon atom that is attached come the -OH group. Alcohols have the right to be grouped right into three great on this basis.
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Properties of Alcohols
Alcohols can be considered derivatives of water (H2O; likewise written together HOH).